Salt, a quintessential ingredient. It can help bring a dish together or completely overwhelm every other flavor. Salt can be a tricky ingredient requiring constant tasting, adjustment, and re-tasting to get it just right. There are three basic types of salt: Table, Kosher, and Sea salt. Each have their own texture, potency, and uses.
The fist type is common table salt. It is very fine, the smallest of the three types. Table salt is also the most potent: a small amount will go a long way. If a dish is bland, this salt will bring life to it. I would not recommend cooking or seasoning with table salt as it is too strong and could potently ruin a dish. However, it is very useful for salting certain bland foods that really absorb salt, like potatoes and other root vegetables.
Kosher Salt is by far my go-to salt. The salt crystals are much larger than table salt and are not uniform in shape. It is also the least potent of the three salts. When seasoning meats before cooking, you can be very generous. If you are grilling or searing meats, keep in mind about half of the seasoning will fall off as you move and turn the food. Salting meats with kosher salt is also a good way to remove water / moisture, allowing you to better sear in the flavors and juices. You cannot sear something wet. Olive oil, which isn't H20, will sear.
Because of the large salt particles and the milder flavor, this is the salt I prefer to cook and season with.
Without a doubt this is sea salt. Comparatively, sea salt crystals are much larger than table or kosher salt. It is also a very strong type salt. Sea salt is the "fancy" or "gourmet" salt, with some brands costing 10 times more than kosher salt. This salt is derived from evaporated sea water and most every place with salty water will sell their own brand of salt. You can cook with sea salt, though it is better used as a garnish or topping. Its large size makes it noticeable and appealing. Since sea salt is expensive, I prefer not to cook with it. I mostly use it for puff pastries and garnish; for everything else, kosher salt works fine for me.